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Reading - Generic Structure

Narrative Text adalah salah satu jenis teks (genre) yang biasa digunakan untuk menulis dongeng atau cerita maupun kejadian diwaktu lampau yang mengandung permasalahan (complication), yang mempunyai langkah-langkah retorika (generic structure) yang terdiri dari: orientation, complication, resolution dan re-orientation jika ada (optional).

The Generic Structure of Narrative Text

(Beginning or introduction)

  • Introduces main characters, setting and time
  • The opening paragraph introduces characters / participants of the story and sets the scene (it answers the questions who, when, what and where)


  • The problem happens among the characters
  • It is about the problems which involve the main characters in the story developed


  • The problem is dissolved
  • It is about how the problems in the story are solved (better or worse). Here, the main characters find ways to solve the problems.

The Social Function of Narrative Texts

The purpose is toentertain, create, stimulate emotions, motivate, give and teach readers.
A narrative text usually has a moral value.
A narrative text may include folktales, myths, legends, etc.




Once upon a time, there was a king reigned in East Java named Sindureja. He had a prime minister named Sidapaksa. Sidapaksa had a very beautiful wife.

Sidapaksa loved his wife deeply. They lived in complete happiness. However, Sidapkasa’s mother didn’t like her daughter in law. Each day she tried to think a way to separate Sidapaksa from his wife.


One day, King Sindureja asked Sidapaksa to search for a bud of a magic flower on Mount Ijen. It was a long journey. The assignment from the king was so important and urgent. Sidapaksa had to leave his pregnant wife.

Not long afterwards, a son was born. The baby’s birth gave much happiness to the young mother.

However, one day, while young mother was bathing, her evil mother–in-law threw the baby into the river. Knowing that her baby had disappeared, the young mother was very sad. She could neither eat nor sleep. She became very ill.

Two years passed and Sidapaksa returned from his journey. He succeeded in doing his duty. Just as he was about to enter his house, her mother told him that his wife had thrown their baby into the river. Sidapaksa believed her mother’s story. He was too angry to use his common sense. He drew his keris and approached her wife who was lying weak on her bed.

“Ah, Wicked woman. Tell me why you threw our new-born child into the river. Tell me!” he said in a rough and angry voice.

“Oh my dearest husband, I am innocent. I love you, and our baby. I didn’t kill our child. If you don’t believe me, carry me to the river. I will prove that I didn’t do it” replied his wife calmly.

Sidapaksa took her wife to the edge of the river. Suddenly, his wife leaped up and threw herself into the river.

“Oh my God! How will I know who killed my child?” moaned Sidupaksa.


Then he looked down the water. Suddenly, two pure white flower buds appeared, one longer and taller than the other. A sweet fragrance came from them.

“Sidapaksa, come and have a look here! Beside me is our child. He himself will tell you who drowned him,” the taller one spoke.

“Father, my mother is innocent. Grandmother threw me into the river. Now I am happy because my beloved mother has come with me,” The smaller one spoke. Then, the two flowers vanished into the water. They left their fragrance behind.

Since then, people call the city on its banks of the river Banyuwangi. Banyu means water and wangi means fragrant.


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